What is Lupus and its Types, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

What is Lupus and its Types, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Lupus is inflammatory diseases that can affect our body’s vital organs lupus is one kind of autoimmune disease generally our body have a defense system (immunity) that may help to fight with foreign bodies or germ.
Normally our immune system produced the protein which can fight with germ its called antibody but when our immunity is unable to identify germ its start fight or attack our own body’s healthy tissues.
Lupus is mostly seen in women than the men 9 out of 10 people with lupus are women it can difficult to diagnose because sign and symptoms are often similar with other disease conditions.

What is Lupus and its Types, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Its cause is unknown sometimes it may be seen as hereditary disease transfer by parents to children some people have born with a tendency towards lupus its triggers when people goes in sunlight taking some drugs or any unfavorable environment while there is no cure of lupus but symptomatic treatment are available that may help to control.
Lupus is not contagious and it can’t transmit by touch or any other contacts.

Types of Lupus:


Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a most common type of lupus which is found in peoples SLE is affect mainly vital organs of our body including heart, brain, kidney, lungs, blood and skin it’s a commonest and chronic autoimmune disorder approximately 5million people suffering from lupus in world


Discoid or cutaneous lupus is a mainly affect the skin. Rashes appear on face, scalp, and neck, discoid lupus does not affect or damage internal organs rarely people with discoid lupus progress into systemic lupus but there is no prevention or we can’t predict that person surely get systemic lupus the pathway is totally unknown of this disease.


This type of lupus occurs when person takes some medication that trigger lupus
When some people take certain prescribed medication that creates reaction. There are mainly some particular drugs that are associated with discoid lupus. Hypertensive drug and hear arrhythmia drugs cause this condition but when a person stop taking drug symptoms are subside after few times


Neonatal lupus is passed from mother to child when a mother transmits autoantibodies to the unborn baby neonatal lupus is occur. When a baby born with neonatal lupus generally characterized rash appear on skin, heart and blood complications after six-month symptoms disappear or fade with time.

What is a Flare-up in Lupus?

Flare up means appear suddenly when lupus flare comes some sign indicates that person will get a flare up some medication sunlight exposure and unfavorable environment trigger lupus and a person experienced some symptoms which are mentioned below but after flare gone symptoms gradually disappear.

systematic erythematosus lupus


Symptoms are differing from people to people who suffer with lupus. Every person with lupus has different sign and symptoms, symptoms are associated with the type of lupus and which system affected of a person but some common symptoms which are listed below :

  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Butterfly shaped rash on Nose Bridge to chicks
  • Joint pain, stiffness and swelling
  • Photosensitivity (skin lesions appear with sun exposure)
  • Raynaud’s phenomenon: fingers and toes that turn blue or white when exposed to cold or stressful period
  • Dry eyes
  • Headache
  • Confusion and memory loss
  • Chest pain shortness of breath


Sunlight Exposure:

A person who has a tendency towards lupus or have discoid lupus those people experience worse symptoms when they exposure to sunlight, sunlight may also cause lupus flare that person has joint pain swelling and other symptoms.


People who have drug-induced lupus get a flare up when they will take some of the prescribed medication like blood pressure Medication, anti-seizure Medication, antibiotics and heart arrhythmia’s drugs.


women have more prone to lupus than the men some research showed those women and men both produced estrogen but women have higher amount of estrogen, many women have experienced symptoms of lupus during pregnancy and before menstrual period at that time women produced higher amount of estrogen but not every woman get lupus it’s just a risk factor for those who have tendency towards lupus.


Genes are transmitted by the parent to offspring we got some habits some traits, the child gets diseases from their parents or also get autoimmunity. There are chances to get lupus from parents in heredity.


Blood Problems:

Anemia, more risk of blood clotting or bleeding and also cause inflammation of blood vessel.


Inflammation of chest cavity, painful breathing.


Lupus nephritis (inflammation of the kidney).


lupus with heart problem its leading death, worse chest pain, inflammation around the sac of heart.


A headache, confusion, mood changes and some get vision problem.


osteoporosis (increased risk of fracture or low bone density).


50% pregnancy is higher risk with lupus.

Risk of miscarriage, preterm or premature delivery, pre-eclampsia and congenital heart defect in a baby.

10 Natural Homemade Face Packs For Dull Skin

10 Natural Homemade Face Packs For Dull Skin

Dryness is the most common cause of dull skin and sun rays create dryness and burn its look older than what you are. Here some amazing face pack that will helps you to prevent and improve your dull skin.

10 Natural Homemade Face Packs For Dull Skin

Face Pack 1

Get 2 teaspoon gram flour, 1 teaspoon wheat flour and pinch of turmeric powder mix it and you can store it as a face pack powder whenever you want to use it takes 1 teaspoon of curd and 1 teaspoon of face pack powder mix it and add 1teaspoon of rose water apply all over the face leave it for dry then rinse off with cold water. Do this 2 to 3 times in a week.


  • Tan removal
  • lighten skin
  • reduced oil
  • an anti pimple
  • removes facial hair
  • reduce acne scar
  • improves dry skin
  • anti aging property

Face Pack 2

1 to 2 teaspoon of milk powder, ½ Teaspoon rose water, 1 teaspoon of lemon juice and a pinch of turmeric powder mix it well and apply it on your face and neck area wait for dry then wash off with cold water


  • Heal dry and rough skin
  • Heal acne
  • Relieve sunburn
  • Clarifying moisturizer
  • Blackhead treatment
  • Shine eliminator

 Face Pack 3

2 teaspoon turmeric powder,1 teaspoon curd, 3 teaspoons of tomato paste or tomato juice and few drops of honey mix it and apply to leave it for dry then wash off with water


  • Reduce acne
  • Detoxification for skin
  • Regulate sebum in oily skin
  • Antibacterial
  • Moisturizing and soothing

 Face Pack 4

2 spoons of crushed cucumber, 2 spoons of curd and 2 spoons of oats blend it then add a pinch of turmeric powder. Apply on face wait for dry and wash off with cold water


  • This pack will make your face and skin hydrated
  • Reduce swelling or irritant skin
  • Help for damaged skin which is done by UV rays, chemical, and pollutant.

Face Pack 5

2teaspoon oats, 1 teaspoon honey, 1 teaspoon of turmeric powder, 1 and ½

A teaspoon of curd and 1 teaspoon of Aloe Vera gel mix it and apply on face rest for 20 to 25min then rinse off with cold water.


  • Anti-inflammatory for skin
  • Reduced acne and burn skin
  • Moisturizing skin
  • Protect skin

 Face pack 6

Take 2 teaspoons fuller’s earth (Multani mitti), few drops of lemon juice,  4 to 5 teaspoons  tomato juice  mix it well and if needed add some rose water for achieving proper consistency then you can apply it wait for dry then rinse off with cold water

This pack help you to absorb extra oil, prevent from acne


  • Treat acne
  • Improves skin elasticity
  • Removes scars
  • Moisturizer

Face Pack 7

2 teaspoon of curd, 1 teaspoon of gram flour, a pinch of turmeric powder, few drops of lemon juice

Add curd in a bowl than one by one all ingredient mix till smooth and creamy


  • Moisturizing your sunburn skin
  • Reduces acne
  • Reduces scar
  • Brighten your skin

 Face Pack 8

2 teaspoon aloe Vera gel, few drops almond oil, few drops of lemon juice mix it and rub it on your face and neck then rinse off


  • Prevents acne
  • Reducing scar
  • Face Glow

Face Pack 9

1 to 2 teaspoons neem powder, 1 teaspoon fuller’s earth add rose water for proper consistency mix till creamy then apply on face and neck rest for 20 to 30 min then rinse off with cold water

This prevents acne, absorb extra oil and feel hydrated


  • Lightens skin blemishes
  • Cleaning acne, scar, pigments, and blackheads
  • Antibacterial

Face Pack 10

1 teaspoon fuller’s earth, 2 to 3 teaspoons aloe vera gel and some drops of potato juice mix it well then apply and gently massage it rest for 5min then apply few drops of water and again massage then rinse off with cold water


  • Removes blemishes
  • Heal sunburn skin
  • Cure wrinkle
  • Remove dark circle
  • Heal eye puffiness
  • Skin whitening
  • Gray hair fix
  • Skin bleaching
  • Remove Scars
  • Anti-aging mask
  • Skin lightening


Note:- These all face packs will help you for your dull skin but if you have allergy from any ingredient do not apply it

How To Lose Weight In 10 Days

How To Lose Weight In 10 Days

A powerful routine on how to lose weight normally quick ought to contain 80% eating routine and 20% exercise. Accordingly, adhere to an exercise session alongside the eating routine regimen to get dazzling outcomes.

How To Lose Weight In 10 Days

Never make major changes in your diet it becomes weaker you and loses your muscles, not fats we have to burn fats to lose weight.
There are some tips that help you to maintain your health, improve your metabolism and reduced fat of the body especially belly fat.

How to Lose Weight

First, you have to take meals on their proper timing and in a proper manner to lose the weight.
Let’s start with morning whenever you will wake up first drink much water as you can drink then go for fresh up and after 15 to 20 min you may eat some healthy fruits, or any other food which one you like to have but remember do not eat with hot or cold drinks like tea coffee.

it if you want to drink then gaping between it of course coffee/tea can boost your immune system but when you take food with it like the iron-containing food it cannot absorb in the body.
So whatever you have to eat or drink just maintain the little gap between it so it’s not worthless for your body.

Now we are discussing how many percentages we get in meals, morning meal have got 90 to 100 % oxygen to the brain and there only get 15 to 20 % energy of lunch and 45 to 50% of dinner so you must have to it health meal in the morning it will improve your memory power also.

How to lose weight fast

Water: water is most important solvent for our body to purify toxic product also hydrated our body and maintain electrolyte balance so drink enough water in a day.
Sit, while drinking water it’s the healthiest way to drink and absorb it properly.

Before 30 min of having meal drink glass of water, it will nourish your digestive system, don’t drink water during meal just small amount you may drink then it very dangerous or unhealthy to drink after the meal you must drink warm water after 1 hour of the meal.

You can also take a glass of warm water with lemon juice and pinch of salt it will prevent constipation Some effective tips:

1. Eat on time don’t skip meal even if possible to 4 to 5 small meal in a day rather than too much eat once. Its easily digest and helps to maintain weight. This should be the first step of your plan on how to lose weight.

How To Lose Weight meal

2. Do yoga Pranayam for 10min its improve your health both physically and mentally. We all know that stress leads to a poor diet. Yoga helps to greatly reduce stress, which not only helps you make better decisions but also lower cortisol level. Cortisol is a stress hormone that causes weight gain. Lowering your cortisol levels will help you naturally lose weight.

How To Lose Weight yoga

3. Have healthy breakfast. 7 to 9 am our blood supply is higher and castrate on stomach during this time if we get healthy food it will get 100% effective metabolism. People who regularly eat in the morning are less likely to overeat at night, proper breakfast gives you energy and helps think and to work productively. People who do not eat breakfast or deprived the first-morning meal are under stress.Be sure to have breakfast every day its most important meal for our Health.

How To Lose Weight food

4. Drink enough water. Water helps to cleans your body waste and boost metabolism, acts as an appetite suppressant.

How To Lose Weight water

5. Avoid fatty oily junk food. There are some foods that you must avoid weight loss

How To Lose Weight junk

  • French fries and potato chips
  • Sugary drinks
  • White bread
  • Candy bars
  • Most fruit juices
  • Pastries, cookies, and cakes
  • Some types of alcohol(BEER)
  • Ice cream
  • Pizza
  • High-calorie coffee drink
  • Food high in added sugar

6. Eat protein: protein have digested slowly than carbohydrates and fat so if you get protein in your food you will be energized whole day. Protein can reduce hunger and boost metabolism.

7. Cut down not out meant to say eat food we also need some amount of fat, carbohydrates but not eat much more than daily requirement.

How To Lose Weight sufficient

8. Eat in the proper manner, eat slowly and proper chew so you will be satisfied and food will be digested perfectly.

9. Get enough sleep and sleep on time. 11 pm to 4 am it’s the best time to sleep during this time our body(kidney) filter toxic product. Poor sleep is a major risk factor for weight gain and obesity. It can increase your appetite. Poor sleep can increase your calorie intake. Poor sleep may decrease your resting metabolism. Sleep can enhance physical activity.

How To Lose Weight sleep

10. Start and end your meals with a small amount of water remember do not drink too much water while eating or instantly after eating.

11. Lemon juice its contain vitamin C which helps to reduce weight also its good for all over health 1lemon juice per day its decreased blood viscosity and prevent heart disease and blood diseases.Drink the juice of one lemon in one cup of warm water with empty stomach in morning increase your weight loss.

How To Lose Weight lemon

Note:- At last but most important is don’t compares your weight to other people check your BMI (BODY MASS INDEX).

After reading this article you will never search how to lose weight, if you apply all the points in daily life.

10 Tricks to get rid of Acne and Pimples

10 Tricks to get rid of Acne and Pimples

Acne is a skin condition that principally influences young men and young ladies amid adolescence.

Billions of microscopic organisms live on your skin. The great microscopic organisms are fundamental for the insurance of your skin and indispensable in keeping up a solid skin condition. Yet, there are additionally undesirable destructive microscopic organisms that can cause irritation and acne breaks outside effects, for example, pimples, redness, aroused and excruciating skin.

10 Tricks to get rid of Acne and Pimples


First get 4 spoon aloe Vera gel, 4 vitamin E tablets and 2 spoon coconut oil then mix it well and you can use it as night cream first clean your face with cold water then apply it in your face it can reduce your dark circle and wrinkle and gradually glow your face with face pack.


  • aloe vera has healing property so aloe vera gel act as an anti-inflammatory and reduced skin inflammation
  • vitamin E has antioxidant properties

It can play in the aging process also reduced your dark circle, acts as a moisturizer if we use it as a night moisturizing

Works for dry and damaged skin

  • coconuts oil is antibacterial and antifungal, also an excellent moisturizer


  • if you have any allergy from above-mentioned ingredients
  • any redness, itching found after using this night cream please do not apply it



Get Fresh Aloe Vera gel, half 1/4 spoon of turmeric powder, 1spoon sandalwood powder, 2 spoon rose water and 1spoon lemon juice then mix it well and apply it on your skin and massage it for 5 to 7min and rest it for 10min and then after rub it with Aloe Vera gel for 1 to 2 min and wash off with cold water.


  • aloe vera has healing property so aloe vera gel act as an anti-inflammatory and reduced skin inflammation
  • Turmeric power reduce acne and scars, it has anti-inflammatory properties so heal pores and good for oily skin also
  • Sandalwood powder has antibacterial properties that heal and prevent acne, whiten skin
  • Rose water has also anti-inflammatory properties can reduce redness, itching and good for damage dull skin
  • Lemon juice has antibacterial and antioxidant properties it’s an excellent natural remedy


  • as same as above but there is no contraindicated from turmeric and rose water its good for all


1spoon of Aloe Vera gel, a half tablespoon of honey, a pinch of turmeric powder and mix it well and apply to your face and neck for 15 to 20mins and wash  it off with warm water


  • honey is the best treatment for acne it is antibacterial and also aging boost


  • there no contraindication of honey but if you have any allergy from this pack do not use


Half spoon of Aloe Vera gel, half spoon of milk, 1/4 spoon of honey, 1spoon of rosewater then mix it and massage it on your skin and wipe it with water

Benefits are same and milk smooth skin, remove dead skin

Contraindications are above mentioned for aloe vera and other substance does not create any allergy


1 spoon of gram flour, half spoon of lemon juice, 1 vitamin E capsule, 1/4 spoon of Aloe Vera gel, few drops of tomato juice and add some rose water to make a paste then apply it on skin leave it for dry and wash off with cold water ( help to reduce acne and scare)


  • gram flour is the very good natural home remedy for beauty boost and acne also for glowing skin

CONTRAINDICATION: allergy after using this do not apply it


2 to 3 spoon Fullers earth, 1spoon of Aloe Vera gel, few drops of honey, 1 vitamin E capsule, few drops of lemon juice, pinch of turmeric powder and add some rose water to mix it well and make a paste apply on your face leave it for 15 to 20 min and wipe it off.


  • fuller’s earth removes scars, treat acne, improve skin elasticity, absorb oil from skin and other ingredient benefits are already mentioned


  • allergy from fuller’s earth or any other ingredient


Get some aloe Vera gel and few drops of lemon juice mix it and apply it on your face (apply it to daily uses) leave it for 10min and wash off with cold water

Same benefits and contraindication of aloe vera and lemon juice


1 to 2 spoon of aloe Vera gel and takes some rose water mix it and applies on your face for 10 to 15min then wash it off ( repeat it twice a day)

Benefits are same for aloe vera and rose water and also contraindications


Get fresh aloe Vera gel and cucumber juice mix it and apply on your face for 10 to 15min and wash it off with cold water

BENEFITS: cucumber reverses skin tanning, control puffiness, treats open pores and reduce dark circles

CONTRAINDICATION: allergy from aloe vera or cucumber


Get 2spoon fresh Aloe Vera gel, 1spoon of olive oil and 1/4 spoon turmeric powder mix it well and apply it for 10 to 15min then wash off with cold water

Benefits aloe vera gel and turmeric benefits are already mentioned and olive has so many benefits for health and skin as a beauty booster and antioxidant

CONTRAINDICATION: if you have oily skin don’t use olive oil


Fresh Aloe Vera piece rub it on the skin and wipe with warm water

Benefits as same above mentioned if you don’t have much time to make any paste it’s an easy way

Contraindications are same


1 spoon of Aloe Vera gel and 4 to 5 spoon of rose water mix well and you can store it in any container and use as a toner.


  • aloe vera has healing property so aloe vera gel act as anti-inflammatory and reduced skin inflammation
  • Rose water good as a moisturizing skin and reduce acne

CONTRAINDICATION: allergy from aloe vera does not apply above tricks.





Difference between Anemia and Polycythemia

Difference between Anemia and Polycythemia

Red blood cells are the vital cells of blood that carries oxygen to all parts of the body. Red blood cells disorders(anemia) are the condition in which there is a problem with red blood cells that affect their function

Types of red blood cells disorders:

A number of red blood cells disorders that are discussed below:


Anemia is the disorder that inability of the red blood cells to carry enough oxygen to meet needs of the body or a condition in which a person has a lower than the normal number of red blood cells or hemoglobin. A lack of the mineral iron in your blood commonly causes this disorder. There are low levels of hemoglobin in blood is a cause of anemia but if any defect in the production of red blood cells that produced faulty hemoglobin or red blood cells also cause anemia.

Difference between Anemia and Polycythemia

 Anemia is classified depending on the cause:

  • A production of insufficient or defective erythrocytes
  • Blood loss or excessive loss of erythrocytes

Another and common classification of anemia is based on mean cell volume (MCV) of red blood cells

Microcytic anemia (low cell volume <80)
Normocytic anemia (normal cell volume range of 80 to 100)
Microcytic anemia large cell volume


It’s related to inability of the red blood cell to supply enough oxygen to the other body cell

  • Tiredness
  • Fatigue
  • Pale appearance
  • Shortness of breath
  • Breathlessness
  • Palpitation


  1. Iron deficiency anemia
  2. Vitamin B12 /Folic acid deficiency anemia
  • Aplastic anemia
  1. Hemolytic anemia
  2. congenital hemolytic anemia
  3. Sickle cell anemia
  4. Thalassaemia
  5. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
  6. Acquired hemolytic anemia


This is the most common form of anemia in many parts of world .when your body does not have enough iron or insufficient red blood cells or hemoglobin, that cause iron deficiency anemia.  Our body needs iron to make hemoglobin. In iron deficiency anemia, the red blood cell count often normal, but cells are small size that contains less hemoglobin than normal. A poor diet or certain intestinal disease that affect body absorbs iron can also cause iron deficiency anemia.  Dietary iron comes mainly from red meat and highly colored   vegetables. Daily iron requirement in male about 8miligram per day and for women 18miligram per day it’s higher to compensate for menstrual losses.


General fatigue
Pale skin
Shortness of breath
Cold hands and feet
Fast or irregular pulse
Brittle nails


Inadequate iron intake
Pregnancy or blood loss due to menstruation
Internal bleeding
Inability to absorb iron


Women of childbearing age
Pregnant women
Poor diet
Donate blood frequently
Prematurely born child


  • Red blood cell size and color
  • Hematocrit
  • Hemoglobin
  • Ferritin( protein helps store iron in our body)


  • Iron supplements:

Take iron tablets on an empty stomach
Don’t take iron with antacids
Take iron tablets with vitamin C

Vitamin B12 / folic acid deficiency anemia:

Deficiency of vitamin B12  and/ or folic acid impairs erythrocytes maturation and abnormally large erythrocytes (megaloblasts) are found in the blood circulation. During normal erythropoiesis abnormal cell division occurs the cells grow larger than normal between divisions, and circulating cells are immature, larger than normal and some are nucleated (usually normal RBC  haven’t  nucleus). This situation cause reduces lifespan to between 40 to 50days (normally 120days), and depressed production and early lysis cause anemia.

If we don’t get enough vitamin B12 in our diet from foods like milk, eggs, and meat, our intestines absorb vitamin B12  from food. A protein in our stomach makes called “intrinsic factor” helps our body absorb it. When we don’t have enough, we have a type of vitamin B12   deficiency anemia called “pernicious anemia”


This is the most common form of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia. It is commonest in female over 50. It is an autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies destroy intrinsic factor and parietal cells in the stomach.


A lack of vitamin B12
Certain condition that make difficulties to absorb enough vitamin B12,
Chronic alcoholism
Crohn disease
Pernicious anemia
Gastrectomy (removal of stomach part)


Diarrhea or constipation
Loss of appetite
Pale skin
Shortness of breath during hard work


  • A complete blood cell count
  • Examination of a blood smear
  • Blood vitamin B12 measurement
  • Test for presence of autoantibodies to instric factor or stomach
  • Bone marrow biopsy


  • Vitamin B12 injection
  • Vitamin B12 supplements and multivitamins


Aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia results from bone marrow failure. In a rare condition when the body stops producing enough new blood or reduced numbers of erythrocytes.  Since the bone marrow also produces leukocytes and platelets, leucopenia (low white blood cell) and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) are also likely. This condition is occasionally inherited. Usually no causes are identified, known causes including;

Drugs; cytotoxic therapy
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy for cancer
Certain medicines
Exposure to toxic chemicals
Autoimmune disorder
A viral infection
Unknown factor


Shortness of breath with exertion
Rapid or irregular heart rate
Pale skin
Frequent or prolonged infection
Unexplained or easy bruising
Nosebleeds and bleeding gums
Skin rash


  • Blood test
  • Bone marrow biops


  • Blood transfusion
  • Stem cell transplant
  • Immunosuppressant
  • Bone marrow stimulants
  • Antibiotic, antiviral


Hemolytic anemia occurs when circulating red blood cells are destroyed and removed prematurely from the bloodstream because of abnormal cells or the spleen is overactive. At the end of red blood cells lifespan their go-to spleen to destroy and converting in bilirubin but in such condition before their lifespan they destroyed. The bone marrow production of erythrocytes increases to compensate, so there may be ongoing hemolysis without anemia. However, if the bone marrow cannot compensate red blood cells numbers will fall and anemia results.


Autoimmune disorder
Medication side effect
Splenomegaly (Enlarge spleen)
Lupus (an inflammatory disease condition when the immune system attacks its own tissues)


Pale skin
A headache
Dark urine
Heart murmur
Enlarged spleen
Enlarged liver


  • Bilirubin measurement
  • Hemoglobin
  • Liver function test
  • Reticulocyte count


  • Blood transfusion
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin
  • Corticosteroid medication
  • surgery


Congenital hemolytic anemia or hereditary hemolytic anemia refers to hemolytic anemia which is primarily due to congenital disorders. In this disease, genetic abnormality leads to the synthesis of abnormal hemoglobin and increased red blood cell membrane fragility, reducing their oxygen carrying capacity and lifespan. The most common forms are sickle cell anemia and Thalassaemia.


Defective gene
Abnormal red cell membrane


Low blood cell count
Nosebleed in child
Abdominal pain
A headache
Enlarge spleen


As same as hemolytic anemia’s diagnosis

TREATMENT: splenectomy 


The abnormal hemoglobin molecules become misshapen when deoxygenated, making the erythrocytes sickle-shaped (weapon used to cut wheat) or crescent moons. The lifespan of cells is reduced by early hemolysis; they usually die in 10 to 20days, which causes anemia. Sickle cells do not move smoothly through the circulation. They obstruct blood flow.

The sickle cell gene is passed from generation to generation it’s called autosomal recessive inheritance means both parents can pass on the defective form of the gene to the child.

Sickle cell trait: with one normal hemoglobin gene and one defective gene they can pass the gene to their child.


The sickle cell anemia is an inheritance, passes from generation to generation called autosomal recessive inheritance.


Delayed growth
Vision impairment
Frequent infection
Pale skin
Pale nail beds


  • Blood test (hemoglobin S)


  • Medication
  • Blood transfusion
  • Vaccinations( prevent infection)
  • Bone marrow transplant


This inherited condition involving lower amount of hemoglobin production, which is turn to reduced erythropoiesis and stimulate hemolysis. In most severe form of the disease, regular blood transfusion is required. This can lead to iron overload.

There are mainly two types of Thalassaemia

  • Alpha Thalassaemia: when genes related to the alpha globin protein are missing
  • Beta Thalassaemia: when similar gene defect affect the production of the beta globin protein
  • Mainly they both alpha and beta Thalassaemia includes two forms
  1. Thalassaemia major: inherit the gene defect from both parents.
  2. Thalassaemia minor: defective gene from only one parent


Maturation in the DNA of cells that produce hemoglobin
Abnormal hemoglobin production


Pale skin
Dark urine
Abdominal pain
Abdominal swelling
Slow growth
Facial bone deformities


  • Blood test for Thalassaemia


  • Mild Thalassaemia: occasionally blood transfusion
  • Moderate /severe Thalassaemia: frequent blood transfusion

Stem cell transplant


In this disorder, the mother’s immune system makes antibodies to the baby’s red blood cells, causing destruction of fetal erythrocytes. This antigen system involved is usually (not always) the rhesus (Rh) antigen.


Rh incompatibility

Develops when an Rh –ve mother conceives a fetus which is Rh +ve

ABO incompatibility


Autoimmune hemolytic anemia


Enlarge liver & spleen
Generalized edema
Respiratory distress


Biochemistry tests for jaundice
Complete blood count
Bilirubin level


Feeding often & receiving extra fluids
Medicines to raise blood pressure if it drops too low


In this context ‘acquired’ means

Hemolytic anemia in which no familial or racial factors involved, there are several CAUSES.


Chemical agents
Blood transfusion reaction
Hypersplenism (entrapment)


Dark urine
Pale skin
Heart murmur
Increase heart rate
Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)


This means an abnormally larger number of erythrocytes in the blood. Also decrease in the volume of plasma and it’s sometimes called erythrocytosis but usually it’s not referred.  This increases blood viscosity, slow blood flow and increases the risk of intravascular clotting ischemia and infarction.

Difference between Anemia and Polycythemia


High Altitudes
Pulmonary disease
Cardiovascular diseases (congenital with the cyanosis)
Heavy cigarette smoking


A headache
Blurred vision
Joint pain
Weight loss
Shortness of breath
Itching (especially following a warm bath)


Blood test

Bone marrow aspiration
Test for the gene mutation that cause polycythemia Vera


Phlebotomy: removal of blood from the circulation.
Aspirin: reduce burning pain
Hydroxyurea:  to suppress bone marrow’s ability to produced blood cells.

Pathological Analysis of CSF & Analysis of Sputum,Urine and Sperm

Pathological Analysis of CSF & Analysis of Sputum,Urine and Sperm

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis:

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear colourless watery fluid present within the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain & spinal cord.

Its main function is protecting the brain & spinal cord from the injury.

Pathological Analysis of CSF & Analysis of Sputum,Urine and Sperm

Formation & composition of CSF:

CSF is secreted continuously at a rate of about 2 to 0.7 ml per min. Or 600 to 700ml per day. The total volume of CFS in adult range from 140 to 270ml.





Uric acid





Characteristic of CSF:

Colour less fluid & clear

Ph – 28 to 7.32

Specific gravity 003 to 1.004

No clot formation

Po2 – 40 to 44mm of hg

Indication of CSF analysis:



Neuro syphilis

Subarachnoid haemorrhage

Collection of CSF:

CSF is usually obtained by lumber puncture or “spinal tap”. The procedure is typically performed under local anaesthesia using a sterile technique. A hypodermic or spinal needle is used to access the subarachnoid space and fluid collected. Fluid may be sent for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological, analysis



The patient is placed on their side (left is more common than right) & head flex so the chin is close to the chest, hunches the back, and brings knee toward the chest. It’s like a foetal position as much as possible. May also sit on a stool and bend their head and shoulders forward.

Site:– spinal needle is inserted between the lumbar vertebrae l3/l4, l4/l5 or l5/s1

Local anaesthesia :- 10ml lidocaine,1%,

Puncture: after 10min after of anaesthesia administration and aspirate the insert needle is inserted and aspirates the CSF.


Colour :

yellow, orange or pink: xanthochroid  csf protein > 100mg/dl

Red blood cell lysis

Red blood cell> 100,000/mm3 (subarachnoid haemorrhage)

brown to dark CSF  : meningeal melanomatosis

Green CSF : hyperbilirubinemia

Cloudy or turbid:

CSF leukocytes > 200wbc/mm3

Red blood cells. 400per mm3

Red: refampicin therapy.

Pleural Fluid Analysis:

The pleura are thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity and act to lubricate and facilitate breathing.

Accumulation of pleural fluid in pleural space or water on lungs it is known as pleural effusion

Appearance, colour & normal amount:

Normal pleural fluid is pale colour

Normal value of pericardial fluid is 10 to 20ml and pericardial fluid is clear

What is pleural fluid analysis:

Pleural fluid analysis is a test that examines a sample of fluid that has collected in the pleural space. This is the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest. When fluid collects in the pleural space, the condition is called pleural effusion.


A procedure called thoracentesisis used to get a sample of pleural fluid. The health care provider examines the sample to look for:

Cancerous (malignant) cells

Other types of cells (for example blood cells)

Levels of glucose, protein and other chemicals

Bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other germs that can cause infections


Preparation For Procedure:

No special preparation is needed before the test. An ultrasound, ct scan, or chest x-raywill be performed before and after the test.

Do not cough, breathe deeply, or move during the test to avoid injury to the lung.

Doctor prescribed medicines to thin the blood.


For thoracentesis, you sit on the edge of a chair or bed with your head and arms resting on a table.

Cleans the skin around the insertion site. Numbing medicine (anaesthetic) is injected into the skin.

A needle is placed through the skin and muscles of the chest wall into the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.

During the test, tell your doctor if you have sharp chest pain or shortness of breath.


Increase the level of pericardial fluid suggests the congestive cardiac failure.

Milky pericardial fluid  suggest  the TB

Analysis Of Peritoneal Fluid :

Peritoneal fluid analysis is also known as paracentesis or an abdominal tap. It’s a procedure that tests the fluid collected from the peritoneal space. Ascites is the accumulation of fluid (usually serous fluid which is a pale yellow and clear fluid) that accumulates in the abdominal (peritoneal) cavity. The abdominal cavity is located below the chest cavity, separated from it by the diaphragm. Ascitic fluid can have many sources such as liver diseasecancerscongestive heart failure, or kidney failure.

Normal level of peritoneal fluid is 50ml and clear in appearance and colourless.


Yellow : cirrhosis of liver , hepatitis, congestive cardiac failure

Green : cholecystitis, appendicitis, duodenal ulcer

Milky : nephritis, lymphoma

Bloody fluid: pancreatitis, rupture of spleen.

Analysis Of Synovial Fluid

Synovial fluid, also called Synovia, is a viscous, non Newtonian fluid in the cavities of synovial joint or found around the joint such as knee , ankle, hip, elbow, wrist and shoulder

Typical Characteristics Of Synovial Fluid:

Clear and colourless

White blood cell(WBC ) count: less than 200cells/micro litre

Viscosity : high

Glucose level: similar to that of the patient’s serum glucose level.


Synovial fluid is collected via arthrocentesis (needle aspiration). Sample volume depends on the size of the joint and the necessary tests. Generally, the volume of the few millilitres, but it can significantly increase in the presence of


Cloudy, yellow-green, more viscous, positive culture suggests septic condition

cloudy/turbid, dense yellow with crystals suggests inflammatory disease of nonimmunologic origin

Cloudy reddish, low viscosity, with WBC count equal to the blood count suggests hemorrhagic conditions.

Milky/cloudy suggests high number of crystals are present

Sputum Analysis :

When you a respiratory tract infection or a lung related disorder, your lungs produce a thick substance known as sputum. This substance can make it hard to breathe, because coughing, and harbour bacteria. Often the most difficult part of a sputum culture is getting enough material in a sputum sample for analysis  

Sputum is colourless watery and odourless tracheal bronchial secretion which is altered in the variety of condition. Affecting the lung and the tranche, bronchial.

Composition :


Electrolytes and water of sputum is trancheobronchial tree

Sputum collection:

The patient is instructed clear his mouth with water before collecting the sample.

The sputum must be coughed up the lung or the bronchi and should be collected carefully in the wide amount

Sterile glass and plastic container of about 50ml and must be closed

In early morning for the routine examination.

24hr sample for their examination  of tuberculin  bacilli

Examination of sputum:

Quality: normal morning sputum 5 ml and 24hr sample about 10ml.


Greenish: rupture of liver

Bright red: TB and pulmonary infraction

Black: inhalation of cold dust of smokers.

Yellow: pulmonary infection.

Odour: foul smelling lung abscess and bronchiectasis and bronchitis.

Cheesy odour: malignant tumour of lung and emphyema.

Semen Analysis : a semen analysis also called “ seminogram”  it’s done to help evaluate male fertility, whether for those seeking pregnancy or verifying the success of vasectomy

Problem with male semen a count for 40% of infertility

Composition And Production Of Semen:




Alkaline fluid

Seminal plasmin: an antibiotic capable of killing bacteria in both male and female systems

Relaxing hormone that activates sperm by motility


Semen consist spermatozoa are produce in testicles and mature in epididymis and store in epididymis until the ejaculation.

Semen is acidic it contain acid phosphatise and proteolytic enzyme.

Semen Collection :

The person has to be obtains from intercourse period at least 3days but not more than 5days

The patient has to evacuate the bladder before the ejaculation the sample should be collected in the privacy room or at the home.

Within 1hr the sample should be transported in the laboratory.


Colour and appearance: the normal semen is thick whitish to slightly yellowish fluid.

Pink to brownish suggests that blood urine and feces present

White clumps indicate pus and the presence of an infection in the reproductive tract of the male.

Yellow: pyospermia means inflammatory process in reproductive system or condition in which a number of white blood cells present in semen.

Volume :

Normal volume  is 2 to 5 ml

Decrease the volume  of semen known as hypospermia

Increase the volume  of semen known as hyperspermia

No production of semen known as Aspermia.

Urine Analysis :

Examination of urine is basic procedure should be carefully perform  to obtain the maximum and best result for the renal disorder

Pathological Analysis of CSF & Analysis of Sputum,Urine and Sperm

Composition Of Normal Urine :

The main composition of urine is 95% of water and remaining 5% composed of 2%urea and 3% divided between organic and inorganic substance.

Inorganic substance :  chloride, phosphorus, sulphur , sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron

Organic substance: uric acid, creatinine, ammonia and bicarbonate.

Collection Of Urine :

Urine is collection in plastic disposable urine container, a fresh, voided, clean, midstream, specimen of urine is collected.

Types of sample:

Morning specimen

Random specimen

Timed specimen

A :- 24hr specimen : it’s used for estimation of protein, sugar and electrolytes

B: – 12hr specimen: it’s useful for quantitative cell and creatinine.

C: – 2hours specimen: it’s useful for estimation of glucose.

Preservation of urine :

Examination of urine should be done within 1 to 2 hr when, if the examination  is delay, the chemical  reaction is occur and to prevent  the multiplication  of the bacteria

Examination Of Urine:

Volume: normal volume of urine is 2liter per day

If the volume of urine is greater than 2liter it’s known as polyuria.

If the volume is less than 500ml it’s known as oliguria.

If there is difficulty in urination or any painful micturition it is known as dysuria

If there is totally absence  of urine its known as anuria

Increase the urination during night time it’s known as nocturia.


The normal colour of urine is amber yellow

Presence of protein in urine known as proteinuria

Presence of glucose its known as glycosuria

Presence of ketones its known as ketonuria

Presence of blood in urine known as hematuria

Presence of bilirubin its known as bilirubinuria


Stool examination is very useful in evaluation  of disorder of GI system

Collection Of Stool: the sample is transferred from a clean bed pan in the toilet.


Preservation of sample can be done by using  of 25ml formalin



The normal colour of stool is depending on diet and health.

Brown: human feces ordinarily has light to dark brown, which results from  a combination of bile, and bilirubin derivatives from dead red blood cells.

Black: presence of black stool suggest  the infection  of upper GI tract

Red colour stool suggest the bleeding  from the GI Tract

Presence of blood in stool known as melena

Presence of mucus or blood it’s known as dysentery.